By David Shushan, Field Applications Engineer, Future Electronics (Israel) and Francois Mirand, EMEA Technical Director, Future Lighting Solutions
The controls embedded in even the more sophisticated streetlights in operation today have a rather limited scope: they may be used for dimming, according to a schedule or in response to measurements of ambient light; to turn the light on and off; and to support maintenance and repair operations, providing status reports and flagging faults.
In themselves, these are useful functions – but there is potential to do far more and to provide far greater value to the owners and operators of streetlights, to pedestrians and road users, and to organisations with commercial or other interests in cities. This is because, in recent months, the technological stars have aligned to enable streetlights to be connected easily and cheaply to an internet gateway.
This article explores the potential value to be derived when a city converts every streetlight into an internet node, and the approaches that manufacturers might take to implementing the design of new connected streetlights.
The most valuable real estate
Property values are a perennial source of fascination for many people in prosperous societies. In some countries, entire television programmes are devoted to the subject of where, why and how to buy a ‘dream home’. When the general public thinks about property prices, it normally has in mind the cost to buy a home or other building. And the more desirable the location, the more expensive the property will be.
But possibly the most valuable pieces of real-estate in any city, square centimetre for square centimetre, are the tiny plots in which its streetlight poles are embedded. It is an interesting thought experiment to imagine how a commercial entity might go about gaining the right to erect 8m-high poles, spaced 25m apart along every street and pavement in the whole of a city, and how much it might have to pay to buy the plots of land. Safe to say, the cost would be astronomical. Today, the poles in these fantastically valuable locations already exist – yet their potential is woefully under-used.
A city’s streetlight poles enjoy prime positions on busy streets filled with pedestrians and vehicles, as shown in Figure1. Elevated, they provide sight lines to a city’s entire network of roads and pavements. And they are exposed to the different air, weather, light and environmental conditions in thousands of known locations.
This real-estate has many potential uses if opened up to commercial and research organisations. Using electronics components which are readily available today and which may be integrated into the luminaire’s circuit design, a streetlight could sense for instance:
• environmental phenomena such as air quality and the concentration of pollutants, the concentration of pollen, ambient light levels, temperature, humidity, air pressure, noise and more
• the density and flow of traffic
• the density and speed of movement of pedestrians
These measurements may be comprehensive and granular, revealing differences even between one end of a street and another. Each streetlight’s sensors have a view of the air and the ground in an area with a radius typically of just 10m to 15m. The field of view of each pole is contiguous with the next, and together, all the fields of view could cover almost the entire surface area of a town or city.
This means, for instance, that local medical services could look for correlations between measurements of air quality and admissions to hospital resulting from severe respiratory illness. They will be able to analyse in detail whether a certain level of air quality, or a particular concentration of an airborne pollutant, is associated with a significant increase in hospital admissions.
Another potential use is to measure the volume and speed of movement of pedestrian traffic. Retailers, for instance, value highly locations in which many pedestrians are concentrated in a dense and slow-moving mass. Information from passive infrared (PIR) sensors or hyper-frequency radars, which can detect the presence and movement of bodies, could be analysed to provide pedestrian traffic data for all the city’s streets, and produce a ranking or score of the relative attractiveness of each pole location for operators of retail outlets.
These two use cases are presented just to show examples of the value which could be derived from the integration of sensor components into streetlights connected to the internet. The actual range of data types which could be captured, and the uses to which the data could be put, are only limited by the imagination of their potential users.
Wireless network technology for connecting streetlights
The vision for the role of the streetlight presented above is ambitious. So which changes have made this new ambition realistic?
The key requirement of the new streetlight is a connection to the internet: the internet is the world’s open, universal network, and provides a standard protocol by which any computer anywhere can interface to any addressable internet node. In the case of streetlights, this means that any permitted system operator globally would be able to draw data from any internet-connected streetlight to which the owner had granted them access.
The big change which makes it possible today to consider connecting all of a city’s thousands of streetlights to the internet is the broadening availability of new Low-Power Wireless wide-area Networking (LPWAN) technology. Two such technologies are competing for dominance:
• Semtech’s LoRa® technology consists of RF transceivers embedded into sensors and gateways, providing the ability to capture and transmit data over long range while consuming little power. In addition, the LoRa Alliance has developed an open protocol based on LoRa technology called LoRaWANTM to help ensure the interoperability of all devices and software components on both public and private networks, as shown in Figure 2.
• SIGFOX, a network protocol, implemented in public network infrastructure
What is new is the ability of both LoRa and SIGFOX to provide low data-rate, low-power, very low-cost wireless coverage over wide areas. For instance the open-space transmitter-to-receiver range of a single LoRa link can be as far as 15km at a low but useful data rate. A single gateway can also provide an interface to as many as 10,000 nodes. This means that all of a mid-sized city’s streetlights could be connected to the internet via just one, centrally located LoRa gateway.
LoRa technology may be implemented in a LoRaWAN-based private network, dedicated to streetlights alone: this means that the streetlight operator will pay for the cost of installing LoRa-based sensors and gateways, and setting up and maintaining the network. But through the efforts of the LoRa Alliance, public LoRaWAN networks are springing up in many cities, and some streetlight operators will be able to piggyback on existing infrastructure, lowering their connection costs even further.
SIGFOX is accessible to users only as a public network, using infrastructure installed by SIGFOX in some countries, and its network operator partners in others.
For both LoRa and SIGFOX, the cost to connect a node and to send and receive signals over the network is remarkably low. Set against the already considerable bill-of-materials and PCB assembly cost and the installation and commissioning cost of a new LED streetlight, the additional cost to provide internet connectivity via a LoRa or SIGFOX network is almost negligible. The cost/benefit ratio is extraordinarily favourable.
This is not just because of the data-gathering use cases, examples of which were described above. Internet connectivity also provides operating benefits to the owners of the streetlights:
• the internet connection allows the streetlight to upload more detailed, timely and actionable status information than closed lighting-control networks. This allows for more effective preventive maintenance, and reduces the requirement for costly field maintenance.
• communication via the internet supports more sophisticated control techniques, such as motion-activated lighting, or lighting-on-demand. Such lighting control schemes, triggered by motion sensors on multiple neighbouring poles, call for complex interactions between streetlights and the control system, interactions which are generally not supported by legacy lighting-control networks, but are readily enabled over an internet connection.
New component requirements
Municipal authorities and commercial organisations, then, can be expected to demand a new generation of internet-connected intelligent LED streetlights. What impact will this have on the architecture of streetlight manufacturers’ products?
The most obvious effect is to increase the number and type of components on the board. Today’s LED streetlights are typically comprised of a light engine, optics and a driver. New intelligent streetlights will require additional device types:
• sensors to capture data on parameters such as temperature, gases, humidity, ambient light and so on
• a high-powered microcontroller capable of processing multiple sensor inputs and handling internet-protocol transactions
• an RF system. End-node modules for either LoRa or SIGFOX networks are available from suppliers such as Microchip and MultiTech, providing a complete, certified solution for wireless connectivity, as shown in Figure 3.
The specification of these components and their integration into an end-product design will take many lighting-equipment manufacturers into uncharted technical territory. This does not, however, mean that they will lack support or roadmaps to guide them. In fact, the growing strength of the Internet of Things is leading manufacturers of many types of industrial, residential and commercial devices to add wireless networking and sensing capabilities to ‘dumb’ products that were previously unconnected to any network.
Such manufacturers and their industry partners have been able to learn from their experiences, and this knowledge is available through Future Electronics. In fact, Future Electronics’ divisional structure, incorporating its Future Connectivity Solutions, Future Lighting Solutions and Future Sensor Solutions operating units, is designed precisely to meet the needs of the new generation of IoT-enabled equipment manufacturers.
The value of adding internet connectivity to streetlights, then, is clear, and the component technology is newly available to support it at low cost. With expert support, streetlight manufacturers may reap the reward of transforming their simple lighting product into an intelligent, internet-connected multi-sensor hub which also happens to cast light on a city’s roads and pavements.